A approach that is particularly problematic pinpointing people in same-sex relationships could be the utilization of proxy reports.

In certain dyadic studies information have now been collected from both partners individually, targeting points of overlap and differences between partners’ accounts, learning such problems whilst the symbolic meaning of appropriate unions for same-sex couples (Reczek, Elliott, & Umberson, 2009; Rothblum et al., 2011b), parenting experiences (Goldberg, Kinkler, Richardson, & Downing, 2011), closeness characteristics (Umberson, Thomeer, & Lodge, in press), interracial relationship characteristics (Steinbugler, 2010), partners’ interactions around health behavior (Reczek & Umberson, 2012), and…